Words" content="Sri Lanka, Liposuction, Skin Whitenening, Skin Fairness, Fairness Cream, Laser skin fairness, Laser, Glutathione, Glutathione IV, Antiaging, Asia, Tummi Tuck, Liposuction, Laser Liposuction, Fat Grafting to the Breast, Breast Augmentation, Cosmetic Tourism,Buttock Augmentation, Fat Grafting to the buttocks, Fat Grafting to the face, Face lift, Abdominal liposuction, Lower back liposuction, Upper back liposuction, Chin liposuction, Power assisted liposuction, Cheap plastic surgery,Cheap cosmetic surgery, board Certified plastic surgeon, refirme, antiageing, fraxel, matrix rf, photofacial, acne treatment, blue light treatment, Wrinkle reduction, Cellulite Therapy, Velashape treatment, cellulite Treatment, Liposhifting, Mini Face lift, lifestyle facelift, Arm tuck, Thigh tuck, Laser Hair Removal, melasma Treatment, Medical weight loss, Mesotherapy ">

Scientific Article About Animal Food Problems facing the world today.  

 

 

Introduction
Over 9 billion land animals are slaughtered for
food annually in the U.S.,1,2 approximately 1
million per hour. The U.S. is home to only
about 5% of the global population but produces nearly
15%of the world’s meat supply,3 and the average American
consumes 110 pounds of red meat and 74 pounds
of poultry per year.4 Global demand for meat has
increased substantially in recent decades. Between 1975
and 1990, per capita meat consumption increased an
estimated 1.4% per year.5 World meat production is
expected to double by 2020 in part due to national
and international regulations that allow animal agribusiness
to externalize costs and to aggressive corporate
marketing campaigns.7–10 For example, the U.S.
Federal Government subsidy system and food assistance
programs heavily promote the production and distribution
of meat and dairy products,11–17 over plant-based
foods.

Recently an investigation of a California dairy cow
slaughter plant by the Humane Society of the U.S.
(HSUS) documented the abuse and slaughter of cows
too sick or injured to walk, leading to the recall of 143
million pounds of beef in February 2008, the largest in
U.S. history.18 The investigation raised considerable
concern about the safety of the meat supply, including
inadequate regulatory oversight by the U.S. Department
of Agriculture (USDA), partly due to the high
throughput of animals slaughtered for food.
Climate Change and Environmental Degradation
As a result of the steady rise in animal-product promotion
and demand, traditional farming practices in the
latter half of the last century were replaced in the U.S.
largely by immense, intensive animal operations; in the
developing world, they are being replaced at a rate of
more than 4% a year.6 The industrialization of animal
agriculture is an important contributor to global environmental
degradation and climate change.19
Animal agriculture accounts for 37%, 65%, and 64%
of anthropogenic methane, nitrous oxide, and ammonia
emissions, respectively, from ruminant fermentation,
livestock waste, fertilizer use and other factors.20
Methane and nitrous oxide have 23 and 296 times,
respectively, the global warming potential of CO2.20 In
2006, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) declared that animal agriculture contributes
18% of annual anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions,
measured in CO2-equivalents, more than that of
the worldwide transportation sector.20 The public
health effects of climate change are already being felt
around the world and the UN Intergovernmental Panel
on Climate Change projects that they will worsen
considerably.21–26
Animal agriculture constitutes 30% of the total land
surface, the largest use of land by humans.20 Thirtythree
percent of total arable land is used to produce
feedcrops,20 with energy input that far outweighs the
output. Approximately 70% of previously forested land
in the Latin American Amazon is used as grazing
pastures, with the remainder being used largely for
feedcrop production.20 Annually in the U.S., 45 milliontons of plant protein are used to produce 7.5 million
tons of animal protein.27 Most of this plant protein
could instead be consumed directly by humans and
could, in part, alleviate some growing concerns about a
global food shortage.
Animal agriculture consumes 70% of the fresh water
and contributes extensively to land, air, and water
pollution.20 Pesticides and fertilizers, including manure,
may contaminate waterways. In the U.S., animal
agriculture is responsible for 37% of pesticide use and
32% and 33%, respectively, of the nitrogen and phosphorus
loads found in fresh water sources.20 Surveys in
North Carolina and Iowa found substantial increases in
asthma symptoms in children residing near industrial
pig operations and decreased quality of life measures in
surrounding communities.28–30 The combined environmental
impact of animal agriculture has led the
FAO to declare in 2006 that “the livestock sector
emerges as one of the top two or three most significant
contributors to the most serious environmental problems,
at every scale from local to global.”20
Emerging and Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases
In 2004, the WHO, the World Organization for Animal
Health, and the FAO reported that the increasing
global demand for animal protein in the human diet,
associated with the expansion and intensification of
animal agriculture, long-distance live-animal transport
and other factors, were in part responsible for the
emergence of zoonotic diseases.31 Industrial agriculture
practices have been blamed for the emergence of
bovine spongiform encephalopathy, multidrug-resistant
foodborne bacteria, and highly pathogenic strains of
avian influenza.32
An estimated 76 million Americans are stricken with
a foodborne illness every year.33 Worldwide, foodborne
microbial disease kills an estimated 20 million people
annually, with animal products topping the list of
causes.34 The global rise in the incidence of foodborne
diseases is attributed to greater consumption of animal
products, the intensification of farm operations, and
rising temperatures.35,36
Annually, more than a ton of farm-animal manure is
produced per capita in the U. S.37 Farm-animal manure
is the source of more than 100 zoonotic pathogens,38
which may contaminate food and water supplies.
Manure-contaminated irrigation water, for example,
was likely the source of the largest recorded outbreak of
Escherichia coli O157:H7, affecting more than 7000
schoolchildren in Japan.39
Under conditions ripe for zoonotic pathogen emergence
and transmission, such as the high-density confinement
of farm animals under unhygienic conditions,
6 farm animal growth rates may be impaired in
light of the infectious load to which they are exposed.
This may be mitigated by a constant influx of growthpromoting
antibiotics.40 Half of all U.S. antimicrobials
are fed to farm animals.41,42 The mass use of clinically
significant antibiotics in animal agriculture selects for
drug-resistant pathogens and mobile genetic elements
carrying resistance determinants that may be responsible
for the majority of the increases in antibioticresistant
human isolates reported.43,44
Chronic Diseases
Historically, chronic diseases, including obesity, have
plagued the developed world, whereas developing
countries have been more affected by communicable
diseases. However, obesity and chronic diseases are
increasingly a concern in developing nations.10 An
estimated 65% of U.S. adults are overweight or obese,45
and globally, more than 1 billion adults are overweight.
46 Especially concerning is the increasing global
prevalence of childhood obesity.46 Obesity increases
the risk for diabetes, arthritis, asthma, hypertension,
and hypercholesterolemia.47Worldwide, cardiovascular
disease, cancer, and diabetes are three of the four main
causes of death.48
The worldwide transition from a predominantly
plant-based diet to a diet high in meat has been
identified as a noteworthy contributor to the rise in
chronic disease.10,49 Animal products are the main
source of saturated fats that promote cardiovascular
disease49 and the sole source of cholesterol intake.
Comparative studies reveal that those who follow plantbased
diets generally have lower weights than those who
do not,50,51 even across ethnic groups.50 While not
conclusive, evidence suggests that the increase in worldwide
obesity and diabetes may in part be associated with
increased animal-product consumption, in addition to
decreased exercise and other factors.10
The classic study by Armstrong and Doll52 revealed
significant association between meat consumption and
colon cancer incidence in over 25 countries. Studies in
Japan revealed a rising incidence in colorectal cancer
with greater adoption of Western dietary habits and
consumption of meat, milk, eggs, and fats and oils.53,54
Other studies revealed similar associations between
rising meat consumption in Asian countries and colon
cancer incidence and/or mortality.55,56 Although confounding
factors must also be considered, these and
other studies collectively provide strong evidence of the
causal link between meat and colorectal cancer.57–59 In
2007, the World Cancer Research Fund and the American
Institute for Cancer Research panel report concluded
that there was convincing evidence to limit red
meat intake, completely avoid processed meat, and
follow a plant-based diet to reduce the overall risk for
cancer.59
Consumption of various animal products is also
associated with increased risk for other cancers. Endometrial
cancer risk is associated with increased intake oftotal energy, fat, and protein from animal sources.60 A
meta-analysis found an increased endometrial cancer
risk with increased meat, particularly red meat, consumption.
61 Dairy-product consumption has been associated
with prostate cancer62–64; the European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study of
142,251 men found that high intake of dairy calcium
and protein increased the risk of prostate cancer.65
Calcium from nondairy foods was not associated with
increased cancer risk. In recent studies, breast cancer
risk has been associated with higher intake of processed
meat, total meat, and/or red meat,66–69 and with
higher intakes of total and saturated fats.69
Healthcare costs attributable to meat consumption
are substantial, estimated in the U.S. at between $29
billion and $61 billion per year, in 1992 dollars.70 In
contrast, many studies suggest that those who consume
plant-based diets have decreased risk, mortality, and/or
progression of cardiovascular disease,71–73 diabetes,74
certain cancers,75–77 and obesity.78,79 Diets high in
legumes, whole grains, fruits, and vegetables appear to
be protective against these chronic diseases.80–82
What Healthcare Providers Can Do
Physicians and other healthcare providers can play a
critical role in promoting healthier food options and
reversing the trend toward greater livestock production.
Healthcare providers can help accomplish this in
three main ways: as advocates, as providers, and as role
models.
As evidence-based advocates, healthcare providers
can provide medical input into federal policies that
affect nutrition and health. The American Public
Health Association (APHA), the American Medical
Association, and the President’s Cancer Panel of the
National Cancer Institute have highlighted the importance
to the obesity epidemic of federal food policy, as
well as the importance of physician and public health
leadership in federal nutrition policy reform.8,83,84 Currently,
U.S. agricultural policy disparately promotes
animal products, in contradiction with the U.S. Dietary
Guideline’s emphasis on plant-based foods. A calculated
73% of over $60 billion in federal commodities
payments for domestic food consumption between
1995 and 2005 supported the production of meat, eggs,
and dairy, either directly or indirectly through feedcrop
supports.11–17 Less than 0.5% of federal subsidies
is allocated to fruits and vegetables.
After the California slaughter plant investigation and
meat recall of February 2008, public food safety concerns
were especially heightened, since a large fraction
of the meat that was recalled had already been distributed
to school lunch programs.18 Surplus agricultural
products, largely animal products high in fat and
cholesterol, are distributed through school lunch and
other food assistance programs. An estimated 100,000
schools receive these commodities, possibly contributing
to the fact that approximately 80% of elementary
and secondary schools violate limits on total and saturated
fat content.85,86
International studies have demonstrated that
changes in agricultural subsidy policy can mitigate
rising chronic disease rates. In Poland, the withdrawal
of large animal-product subsidies led to decreased
saturated fat intake and increased fruit and vegetable
intake, followed by a subsequent decrease in ischemic
heart disease mortality.87 After long periods of increases,
mortality from heart disease and stroke decreased
by 25% and 10%, respectively, between 1991
and 1994 among those aged 45–64. Between 1986 to
1990 and 1994, there was a 23% decrease in animal fat
availability, 48% increase in vegetable fat availability,
and an almost 50% increase in importation of certain
fruits. In Eastern European countries in 2002, substantial
decline in cardiovascular mortality was associated
with increased consumption of plant oils rich in alphalinolenic
acid.88
In addition to involvement in food policy, healthcare
providers should have a coordinated voice in environmental
policy. The APHA has a policy calling for a
moratorium on factory farms. Other physician and
healthcare groups could follow suit. Recently, the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency proposed that livestock
farms be exempt from reporting emissions of
ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and other pollutants.90
Input from healthcare providers is needed to prevent
such regressions in environmental protections that may
otherwise pose adverse public health consequences.
As healthcare providers, all physicians, nurses, and
physicians assistants can incorporate nutrition counseling
into routine care. When physicians advise their
patients about nutrition, incidence of chronic diseases
may decline.91–94 Despite the potential of counseling to
improve dietary practices, many primary care physicians
never include nutrition or dietary counseling in
their patient visits, or include only perfunctory counseling.
95–98 Medical societies can facilitate the incorporation
of routine nutrition counseling by advocating for
greater physician reimbursement for such care.
Finally, as individuals, healthcare providers can serve
as examples and leaders when they alter their own
lifestyle behaviors. One of the least exploited and most
significant and consistent counseling predictors is the
positive effect of a physician’s healthy personal practices
on his or her clinical prevention-related practices.99–103
Specifically, physicians’ healthy dietary practices positively
affect their clinical nutrition counseling attitudes99
and practices91,99,102,103; and U.S. medical students
find nutrition counseling more relevant if they
consume more fruits and vegetables.104
Health professionals can set an example by consuming
fewer animal products at home and at work, and by
demanding healthier plant-based options in hospitalcafeterias, doctors’ and nurses’ lounges, and at professional
conferences and meetings. The APHA and the
Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future offer prime
examples of how meatless meals can be promoted.
105,106 Through the work of Health Care Without
Harm coalition, over 122 hospitals in the U.S. have
signed a pledge to offer healthier food items to visitors,
patients, and staff.107 Health professionals can also
stress nutrition education in Continuing Medical Education
courses.
Given the animal agriculture sector’s considerable
role in environmental degradation, zoonotic disease
emergence, and chronic disease promotion, reducing
livestock production and promoting healthy plantbased
diets should be a global health priority. Healthcare
providers can, individually and collectively, play a
significant role in ensuring healthy and environmentally
sustainable nutrition policies and practices.
The authors thank Kyle Ash for his thoughtful input on
federal food policies. There was no external funding for this
manuscript
No financial disclosures were reported by the authors of
this paper.
References
1. USDA. Livestock slaughter 2003 summary. usda.mannlib.cornell.edu/
usda/nass/LiveSlauSu//2000s/2004/LiveSlauSu-05-04-2004.txt.
2. USDA. Poultry slaughter 2003 annual summary. 2004. http://usda.
mannlib.cornell.edu/usda/nass/PoulSlauSu//2000s/2004/PoulSlauSu-
03-08-2004.txt.
3. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Production of
meat and share of the world. www.fao.org/statistics/yearbook/vol_1_1/
pdf/b02.pdf.
4. U.S Census Bureau. Statistical abstract of the United States. 2008.
www.census.gov.
5. Trostle R. Global agricultural supply and demand: factors contributing to
the recent increase in food commodity prices. WRS-0801. Economic
Research Service/USDA, 2008.
6. Pearson J, Salman MD, BenJabara K, et al. Global risks of infectious animal
diseases. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, Issue Paper
No. 28., 2005.
7. Elinder LS. Obesity, hunger, and agriculture: the damaging role of
subsidies. Br Med J 2005;331:1333–6.
8. American Public Health Association. Toward a healthy, sustainable food
system. Policy number 200712. APHA, 2007. www.apha.org/advocacy/
policy/policysearch/default.htm?id 1361.
9. Chopra M, Darnton-Hill I. Tobacco and obesity epidemics: not so
different after all? Br Med J 2004;328:1558–60.
10. Popkin BM, Du S. Dynamics of the nutrition transition toward the animal
foods sector in China and its implications: a worried perspective. J Nutr
2003;133:3898S–3906S.
11. Environmental Working Group. Environmental Working Group’s farm
subsidy database. Top programs in the United States, 1995-2006. farm.
ewg.org/farm/region.php?fips 00000.
12. United Soybean Board. 2001 soy stats. www.soystats.com.
13. World Resources Institute, EarthTrends. Nutrition: grain fed to livestock
as a percent of total grain consumed. earthtrends.wri.org/searchable_db/
index.php?theme 8&variable_ID 348&action select_countries.
14. Good D. Corn: a record large crop. Grain Price Outlook 2003, No. 7.
www.ideals.uiuc.edu/bitstream/2142/1379/2/101703.pdf.
15. Sustainable Agriculture Network. Opportunities in agriculture. Diversifying
cropping systems. Thomas Jefferson Agricultural Institute. www.
sare.org/publications/diversify/diversify.pdf
16. Office of Industries, U.S. International Trade Commission. Industry and
trade summary: grains (cereals). USITC Publication 3350, September
2000. hotdocs.usitc.gov/docs/pubs/industry_trade_summaries/pub3350.
pdf.
17. Leibtag E. Corn prices near record high, but what about food costs?
Amber Waves 2008;6. www.ers.usda.gov/amberwaves/february08/features/
cornprices.htm.
18. Brown D. USDA orders largest meat recall in U.S. history. The Washington
Post 2008 Feb 18.
19. Koneswaran G, Nierenberg D. Global farm animal production and global
warming: impacting and mitigating climate change. Environ Health
Perspect 2008;116:578–82.
20. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Livestock’s
long shadow: environmental issues and options. Rome: Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations, 2006.
21. Frumkin H, Hess J, Luber G, Malilay J, McGeehin M. Climate change: the
public health response. Am J Public Health 2008;98:435– 45.
22. Shea KM, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Environmental
Health. Global climate change and children’s health. Pediatrics 2007;120:
e1359–67.
23. Bernstein L, Bosch P, Osvaldo C, et al. Climate change 2007: synthesis
report. Summary for policymakers. An assessment of the Intergovernmental
Panel on Climate Change. www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/
ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm.pdf.
24. Frumkin H, McMichael AJ, Hess JJ. Climate change and the health of the
public. Am J Prev Med 2008:35:401–2.
25. Kinney PL. Climate change, air quality, and human health. Am J Prev Med
2008:35:459–67.
26. St. Louis ME, Hess JJ. Climate change: impacts on and implications for
global health. Am J Prev Med 2008:35:527– 41.
27. Pimentel D. Livestock production and energy use. In: Matsumura R, ed.
Encyclopedia of energy. San Diego: Elsevier, 2004.
28. Mirabelli MC, Wing S, Marshall SW, Wilcosky TC. Asthma symptoms
among adolescents who attend public schools that are located near
confined swine feeding operations. Pediatrics 2006;118:e66 –75.
29. Wing S, Wolf S. Intensive livestock operations, health and quality of life
among Eastern North Carolina residents. Environ Health Perspect 2000;
108:233–8.
30. Merchant JA, Naleway AL, Svendsen ER, et al. Asthma and farm exposures
in a cohort of rural Iowa children. Environ Health Perspect 2005;113:
350–6.
31. WHO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, World
Organization for Animal Health (WHO/FAO/OIE). Report of the
WHO/FAO/OIE joint consultation on emerging zoonotic diseases, 2004.
32. Greger M. The human/animal interface: emergence and resurgence of
zoonotic infectious diseases. CRC Crit Rev Microbiol 2007;33:243–99.
33. Mead PS, Slutsker L, Dietz V, et al. Food–related illness and death in the
United States. Emerg Infect Dis 1999;5:607–25.
34. Delgado C, Rosegrant M, Steinfeld H, Ehui S, Courbois C. Livestock to
2020, the next food revolution. Food, agriculture, and the environment
discussion paper 28, for the International Food Policy Research Institute,
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and the
International Livestock Research Institute, 1999.
35. Adams M, Motarjemi Y. Basic food safety for health workers. Geneva:
WHO Press, 1999.
36. McMichael AJ, Haines A, Slooff R, Kovats S, eds. Change and human
health. Geneva: WHO, World Meteorological Organization, United States
Environmental Program, 1996.
37. Environmental Protection Agency. National pollutant discharge elimination
system permit regulation and effluent limitation guidelines and
standards for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs); Final
Rule, 68 Fed. Reg. 7176, 7180, February 12, 2003.
38. Walton JR, White EG, Communicable diseases resulting from storage
handling, transport and land spreading of manure. Luxembourg: Office
for Official Publications of the European Communities, 1981.
39. Michino H, Araki K, Minami S, et al. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli
O157:H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai City Japan, associated with
consumption of white radish sprouts. Am J Epidemiol 1999;150:787–96.
40. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). Drugs in livestock feed: volume
1. Technical Report. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office,
1979.
41. Antimicrobial resistance: issues and options. In: Harrison PF, Lederberg J,
eds. Forum on emerging infections, Institute of Medicine. Washington
DC: National Academy Press, 1998.
42. PEW: Pew Charitable Trusts. Putting meat on the table: industrial farm
animal production in America. The Pew Charitable Trusts and JohnsHopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. A report of the Pew
Commission on industrial farm animal production, 2008.
43. Smith DL, Dushoff J, Morris JG. Agricultural antibiotics and human
health. PLoS Medicine 2005;2:e232.
44. Tollefson L, Fedorka-Cray PJ, Angulo FJ. Public health aspects of antibiotic
resistance monitoring in the USA. Acta Vet Scand Suppl 1999;92:
67–75.
45. CDC. National Center for Health Statistics factsheet. Prevalence of
overweight and obesity among adults: United States, 2003–2004.
www.cdc.gov.
46. World Health Organization factsheet: obesity and overweight. www.who.
int/dietphysicalactivity/publications/facts/obesity/en.
47. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, et al. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes,
and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA 2003;289:76 –9.
48. Yach D, Hawkes C, Gould CL, Hofman KJ. The global burden of chronic
diseases. Overcoming impediments to prevention and control. JAMA
2004;291:2616–22.
49. Walker P, Rhubart-Berg P, McKenzie S, Kelling K, Lawrence RS. Public
health implications of meat production and consumption. Public Health
Nutr 2005;8:348 –56.
50. Berkow SE, Barnard N. Vegetarian diets and weight status. Nutr Rev
2006;64:175– 88.
51. Melby CL, Hyner GC, Zoog B. Blood pressure in vegetarians and
non-vegetarians: a cross-sectional analysis. Nutr Res 1985;5:1077– 82.
52. Armstrong B, Doll R. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and
mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices.
Int J Cancer 1975;15:617–31.
53. Kuriki K, Tajima K. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and the
preventive strategy in Japan. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2006;7:495–501.
54. Kuriki K, Tokudome S, Tajima K. Association between type II diabetes and
colon cancer among Japanese with reference to change in food intake.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2004;5:28 –35.
55. Tominaga S, Kuroishi T. An ecological study on diet/nutrition and cancer
in Japan. Int J Cancer 1997;S10:2– 6.
56. Lee SI, Moon HY, Kwak JM, et al. Relationship between meat and cereal
consumption and colorectal cancer in Korea and Japan. J Gastroenterol
Hepatol 2008;23:138–40.
57. Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, et al. Meat consumption and risk of
colorectal cancer. JAMA 2005;293:172– 82.
58. Cross AJ, Leitzmann MF, Gail MH, Hollenbeck AR, Schatzkin A, Sinha R.
A prospective study of red and processed meat intake in relation to cancer
risk. PLoS Medicine 2007;4:e325.
59. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research.
Food, nutrition, physical activity and the prevention of cancer: a global
perspective. Washington DC: AICR, 2007.
60. Xu W-H, Dai Q, Xiang Y-B, et al. Nutritional factors in relation to
endometrial cancer: a report from a population-based case– control study
in Shanghai China. Int J Cancer 2007;120:1776–81.
61. Bandera EV, Kushi LH, Moore DF, Gifkins DM, McCullough ML. Consumption
of animal foods and endometrial cancer risk: a systematic
literature review and meta-analysis. Cancer Causes Control 2007;18:
967– 88.
62. Mitrou PN, Albanes D, Weinstein SJ, et al. A prospective study of dietary
calcium, dairy products and prostate cancer risk (Finland). Int J Cancer
2007;120:2466–73.
63. Chan JM, Stampfer MJ, Ma J, Gann PH, Gaziano JM, Giovannuci EL. Dairy
products, calcium, and prostate cancer risk in the Physician’s Health
Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:549 –54.
64. Kurahashi N, Inoue M, Iwasaki M, Sasazuki S, Tsugane AS, Japan Public
Health Center–Based Prospective Study Group. Dairy product, saturated
fatty acid, and calcium intake and prostate cancer in a prospective cohort
of Japanese men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:930 –7.
65. Allen NE, Key TJ, Appleby PN, et al. Animal foods, protein, calcium and
prostate cancer risk: the European perspective investigation into cancer
and nutrition. Br J Cancer 2008;6:1574–81.
66. Taylor EF, Burley VJ, Greenwood DC, Cade JE. Meat consumption and
risk of breast cancer in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. Br J Cancer
2007;96:1139–46.
67. Linos E, Willett WC, Cho E, Colditz G, Frazier LA. Red meat consumption
during adolescence among premenopausal women and risk of breast
cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2008;17:2146 –51.
68. Cho E, Chen WY, Hunter DJ, et al. Red meat intake and risk of breast
cancer among premenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:
2253–9.
69. Boyd NF, Stone J, Vogt KN, Connelly BS, Martin LJ, Minkin S. Dietary fat
and breast cancer risk revisited: a meta-analysis of the published literature.
Br J Cancer 2003;89:1672– 85.
70. Barnard ND, Nicholson A, Howard JL. The medical costs attributable to
meat consumption. Prev Med 1995;24:646 –55.
71. Ornish D, Scherwitz LW, Billings JH, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes for
reversal of coronary heart disease. JAMA 1998;280:2001–7.
72. Kwok TK, Woo J, Ho S, Sham A. Vegetarianism and ischemic heart disease
in older Chinese women. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:622–7.
73. Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and
non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000
men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutr 1998;
1:33– 41.
74. Barnard ND, Cohen J, Jenkins DJ, et al. A low-fat vegan diet improves
glycemic control and cardiovascular risk factors in a randomized clinical
trial in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1777– 83.
75. Saxe GA, Major JM, Nguyen JY, Freeman KM, Downs TM, Salem CE.
Potential attenuation of disease progression in recurrent prostate cancer
with plant-based diets and stress reduction. Integr Cancer Ther 2006;5:
206–13.
76. Ornish D, Weidner G, Fair WR, et al. Intensive lifestyle changes may affect
the progression of prostate cancer. J Urol 2005;174:1065–9.
77. Cui X, Dai Q, Tseng M, Shu XO, Gao YT, Zheng W. Dietary patterns and
breast cancer risk in the shanghai breast cancer study. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1443– 8.
78. Key TJ, Davey GK, Appleby PN. Health benefits of a vegetarian diet. Proc
Nutr Soc 1999;58:271–5.
79. Ornish D, Brown SE, Sherwitz LW, et al. Can lifestyle changes reverse
coronary heart disease? Lancet 1990;336:129 –33.
80. Slavin J. Why whole grains are protective: biological mechanisms. Proc
Nutr Soc 2003;62:129 –34.
81. Slavin JL, Jacobs D, Marquart L, Wiemer K. The role of whole grains in
disease prevention. J Am Diet Assoc 2001;101:780 –5.
82. Everitt AV, Hilmer SN, Brand-Miller JC, et al. Dietary approaches that
delay age-related diseases. Clin Interv Aging 2006;1:11–31.
83. American Medical Association House of Delegates: H-150.944, combating
obesity and health disparities, 2007. www.ama-assn.org.
84. President’s Cancer Panel, National Cancer Institute, USDHHS. Promoting
healthy lifestyles: policy, program, and personal recommendations for
reducing cancer risk. 2006–2007 Annual Report, August 2007.
85. Fox Mk, Crepinsek MK, Connor P, Battaglia M, McKinne P. School
nutrition dietary assessment study–II. Summary of findings. Alexandria
VA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Office of
Analysis, Nutrition and Evaluation., 2001. www.fns.usda.gov/oane/menu/
published/cnp/files/sndaiifindsum.htm.
86. Bhattacharya J, Currie J, Haider SJ. Evaluating the impact of school
nutrition programs. Final report. E-FAN-04-008, U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Economic Research Service, 2004. www.ers.usda.gov/
publications/efan04008.
87. Zatonski WA, McMichael AJ, Powles JW. Ecological study of reasons for
sharp decline in mortality from ischemic heart disease in Poland since
1991. Br Med J 1998;316:1047–51.
88. Zatonski W, Campos H, Willett W. Rapid declines in coronary heart
disease mortality in Eastern Europe are associated with increased consumption
of oils rich in alpha-linolenic acid. Eur J Epidemiol 2008;
23:3–10.
89. American Public Health Association. Precautionary moratorium on new
concentrated animal feed operations. APHA policy statement number
20037. 11/18/2003. www.apha.org/advocacy/policy/policysearch/
default.htm?id 1243.
90. EPA proposal on livestock emissions causes stink. The High Plains/
Midwest Agriculture Journal 2008 Jan 9.
91. Ammerman AS, DeVellis RF, Carey TS, et al. Physician-based diet counseling
for cholesterol reduction: current practices, determinants, and
strategies for improvement. Prev Med 1993;22:96 –109.
92. Hadden DR, Blair AL, Wilson EA, et al. Natural history of diabetes
presenting at age 40–69 years: a prospective study of the influence of
intensive dietary treatment. Q J Med 1986;59:579 –98.
93. Horrocks PM, Blackmore R, Wright AD. A long-term follow-up of dietary
advice in maturity-onset diabetes: the experience of one centre in the UK
Prospective Study. Diabet Med 1987;4:241– 4.
94. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Behavioral counseling in primary
care to promote a healthy diet: recommendations and rationale. Am Fam
Physician 2003;67:2573– 6. www.aafp.org/afp/20030615/us.html.95. Kushner RF. Barriers to providing nutrition counseling by physicians: a
survey of primary care practitioners. Prev Med 1995;24:546 –52.
96. Russell NK, Roter DL. Health promotion counseling of chronic-disease
patients during primary care visits. Am J Public Health 1993;83:979–82.
97. Anis NA, Lee RE, Ellerbeck EF, Nazir N, Greiner KA, Ahluwalia JS. Direct
observation of physician counseling on dietary habits and exercise:
patient, physician, and office correlates. Prev Med 2004;38:198 –202.
98. Frank E, Wright EH, Serdula MK, Elon LK, Baldwin G. U.S. women
physicians’ personal and clinical nutrition-related practices. Am J Clin
Nutr 2002;75:326 –32.
99. Sciamanna CN, DePue JD, Goldstein MG, et al. Nutrition counseling in
the promoting cancer prevention in primary care study. Prev Med
2002;35:437– 46.
100. Cummings KM, Giovino G, Sciandra R, Koenigsberg M, Emont SL.
Physician advice to quit smoking: who gets it and who doesn’t. Am J Prev
Med 1987;3:69 –75.
101. Lewis CE, Clancy C, Leake B, Schwartz JS. The counseling practices of
internists. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:54–8.
102. Hyman DJ, Maibach EW, Flora JA, Fortmann SP. Cholesterol treatment
practices of primary care physicians. Public Health Rep 1992;107:
441– 8.
103. Frank E, Rothenberg R, Lewis C, Belodoff BF. Correlates of physicians’
prevention-related practices. Findings from the women physicians’ health
study. Arch Fam Med 2000;9:359–67.
104. Spencer EH, Frank E, Elon LK, Hertzberg VS, Serdula MK, Galuska DA.
Predictors of nutrition counseling behaviors and attitudes among U.S.
medical students. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;84:655– 62.
105. American Public Health Association. Climate change: our health in the
balance. Healthy climate pledge. 2008. www.ecdh.org/documents/
livingthehealthlyclimatepledge.pdf.
106. Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center For a Livable
Future Programs. Eating for the future. Meatless Monday Campaign, Inc.
www.jhsph.edu/clf/PDF%20Files/Info_sheet_programs_eat.pdf.
107. Harvey J. Menu of change: healthy foods in health care. A 2008 survey of
healthy food in health care pledge hospitals. Health Care Without Harm,
2008. www.noharm.org.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.